ISS Space Station Development
Modules of the International Space Station
The idea of an international space station appeared by merging plans for the American station Freedom and the Russian Mir 2. ISS is currently a joint project of five space agencies: NASA, Roskosmos, JAXA, CSA and ESA. Other countries cooperate on particular scientific tasks and devices.
The evolution of the space station was delayed already at the beginning, that’s why NASA finally paid the completion of the first Russian module Zarya. Shortly after its launch, Space Shuttle Endeavour transported the Unity communications module. After joining both modules in 1999, the ISS began operations. Since the end of 2000, the station has been occupied by permanent crews.
The development of the ISS required over 40 assembly flights, of which 35 were operated by US shuttles. Currently, the crews are transported to the station by Russian spaceships Soyuz, and the cargo is handled by Dragon (SpaceX), Cygnus (Orbital), Progress (Russia), formerly also by ATV (ESA) and HTV (Japan) spacecrafts. Newly, the Crew Dragon spaceship of American company SpaceX can also transport human crews to the ISS.
The main ISS modules are intended for scientific activities (American module Destiny - main general laboratory, Japanese laboratory Kibó - material research and astronomy, European module Columbus - biological and biomedical experiments, external platforms ESP - installation of individual instruments, European observatory Cupola - Earth surface, ISS jacket). Other units are necessary for the operation, storage and transport of material (Russian Zvezda, international Leonardo). There are also important service modules and connecting nodes (Canadarm and Dextre manipulators, American Unity, Harmony, Tranquility, Quest transition level, Russian Pirs node).
During the existence of the International Space Station, nearly a hundred astronauts have been on board on its permanent expeditions, with dozens more in the so-called visitor crews.
The cost of a complete ISS has already exceeded $160 billion, making it the most expensive man-made object in history.
The entire ISS is structured to two segments - American and Russian. Under current warranties, NASA will subsidize the US segment until 2025. Roskosmos planned to disconnect its segment in 2024 (as the base of the Russian station OPSEK), but abandoned the plans.
The events’ timeline captures the process of building the International Space Station module by module.
11/20/1998 - 2025
Timeline with calendar dates: 3
sets of values
One-time & time-span events (7
: Timixi (editors)
Budování vesmírné stanice ISS
ISS Space Station Development
TIMELINE IN CATALOG
Industry & engineering
International Space Station - en.wikipedia.org
International Space Station ISS [CZ] - cs.wikipedia.org
International Space Station [CZ] - mek.kosmo.cz
Assembly of the ISS - en.wikipedia.org
International Space Station Basics, NASA 2007
Reference guide to the International Space Station, Assembly complete ed. p. cm., NASA 2010